Juntos construimos nuestros sueños
Juntos construÍmos nuestros sueños
Juntos construimos nuestros sueños

Monogr. Advantages of overt observation, it is cheep, legal and you will not find anything that the participant does not want you to. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. Dis. On the occasions when a milk maid actually contracted smallpox, the resulting illness was often far less severe and of much shorter duration than in patients who had not spent time around cattle. It is not possible to generalise as the research carried out as it only gives information about a small group of people, any conclusions can only apply to the specific group studied. One with overt observation skills must learn to hone The participants are aware that the data is for a study and publication and they are less likely to withdraw. It is a much flexible approach since the researcher does not pre-judge the issue by deciding in advance what is or is not important when studying social behaviour. Cancer vaccine strategies: translation from mice to human clinical trials. 34, 479492. She didn't conduct covert research because she feared for her own psychological health as the experiment took place over six years. Where should I start working out out of shape? J.Pediatr. in their views it lacks objectivity and reliability and does not yield representative data that can be generalised to the wider population. see anything done against the rules. What are the advantages and disadvantages of covert observation? Hypothesis is framed using Observation Studies. 52, 911916. Overt observations have more advantages than disadvantages making them a good method to use for research. Copyright Get Revising 2023 all rights reserved. - I will first try to define the ethnographic . If one researcher feels like the pursuit of a data tangent is worthless while another feels like it is a critical ingredient to a successful outcome, then the information that each person gathers will have a slightly different purpose to it. be broken and/or taken away due to even the most minute and perhaps Some phenomenon of study are abstract in nature. Conditions such as measles or polio, however, are virtually invisible in the modern westernised world, making it perhaps difficult for parents to imagine the consequences of contracting the disease. 10. the disadvantages were good but the rest needs fixing also add more disadvantages Sign up to Comment Similar Sociology resources: Research Methods Covert Observation Sociology Observation types Observations AS Level Sociology - Research Methods = Observation Research methods essay - Observation sociology - DIRECT NON PARTICAPANT OBSERVATION Marrazzo, J.M.,Koutsky, L.A.,Kiviat, N.B.,Kuypers, J.M., Stine, K., 2001. Che ne pensano di quest' immagine tutti quelli a favore delle torture e degli obblighi per chi non si adegua al loro dio e alla loro fede. 4 main disadvantages of the observation method are; Lack of control Difficulties in quantification Smallness in sample size No opportunity to learn past Lack of control Despite the advantage of the natural environment, the observation study has little control over extraneous variables that may affect the data. as enjoyable for me and my overt observation. It takes a lot of time to gather factual data using participant observation. The problem is representativeness. By taking a proactive approach to ideas or circumstances that could be problematic if left unchecked, researchers can ensure the survival of a project, idea, or commercial venture. observe such a rule infraction. One must learn to find a Patients with mild paralysis can usually recover their muscular function over the course of a few months, while others can go on to suffer life-long disability. Smallpox and bioterrorism. . 5 What are the strengths of observations? They are detailed and have higher reliability than overt but do have a number of problems making them difficult to carry out such as ethical reasons. 9. Advantages of participant observation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Vaccination. All work is written to order. Kash, N., Lee, M.A.,Kollipara, R., Downing, C., Guidry, J.,Tyring, S.K., 2015. When I mention read more. , Sociology - Education with theory and methods , G671: Research Methods in Holdens's Pre-release? No prior knowledge of social incidence is required. An advantage of covert observation is that it should be high in validity, as people are observed in natural surroundings, and as they are unaware of being observed the Hawthorne Effect is avoided. Overt PO is more objective and can be ethical. You must have trained researchers who can establish rapport with a targeted demographic while also having the willingness to become part of that element of society for the duration of the work. The results may not always be representative which questions the credibility of the research. 3. unrelated occurrence when a person is blessed with overt 2. Dis. Autism is something that many people are familiar with, whether they personally know someone on the autistic spectrum or they are simply aware of the condition through various media presentation. The effect was initially observed in the 1920s and has subsequently led to mass vaccinations to induce herd immunity for a wide variety of infectious diseases(Fine et al., 2011). Disadvantages of covert are that it is expensive and time consuming to hide equipment. Researchers must get directly involved with the particular demographic they want to study so that the data they collect is authentic. Then again, the strength of the switch is imperative. There is ahigh rate of inter-rate reliability as two researchers may even be simultaneously observing Disadvantages Raises ethical issues such as informed consent, deception and privacy of the particpant. CII 67, 18631869. Several advantages and disadvantages of participant observation are worth noting when approaching a qualitative research project. Would that person know the right questions to ask? For example in item A, the researcher had to be drawn into the interaction with these seven year olds without the consent of their parents which might be an important ethical issue here. What are 6 of Charles Dickens classic novels? No plagiarism, guaranteed! it can have many disadvantages as well. Mueller, S.,Wimmer, E., Cello, J., 2005. control over outside factors that can influence the outcome of STRENGTHS Low ecological validity as the researcher records behaviours in an artificial (manipulated) environment, with potential outside interference from the researcher. This is an AQA AS and A-Level Sociology topic.This video covers:00:00 Introduction00:36 What . Observation techniques are cost effective and produce valid results. Overt behaviors can be observed. results. This activity implies a dimension of information that is often lacking when conducting surveys or direct interviews. Advantages of covert observation It does not disturb the normal behaviour of the group so there is higher validity It allows the observer to dig deeper into the groups' behaviour It gives access to certain secret behavior of the group Interviewer bias can be avoided No prior knowledge of social incidence is required Since the development of vaccines in common practice, many infectious and potentially dangerous conditions have seen dramatic decline in incidence. JavaScript seem to be disabled in your browser. Thus, this method provides a more natural understanding of a phenomenon. Researchers must get directly involved with the particular demographic they want to study so that the data they collect is authentic. Here you can choose which regional hub you wish to view, providing you with the most relevant information we have for your specific region. It does not provide a statistical representation of the gathered intervention. How can we avoid the occurrence of weld porosity? Copyright 2023 QUIZSILO.COM - All rights reserved. Several laboratory techniques. It provides insight into an individual or group attitude. McKee, C., Bohannon, K., 2016. It is natural and researchers can ask a number of questions (structured observation) Disadvantages A very high risk of demand characteristics which lowers validity. Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease. They can be better controlled and moniotored as the researcher can dig deeper and assess more. I can't just ignore or Disadvantages are the participant will change their routine because they are being observed. Learn how your comment data is processed. J. IAC EXPRESS Issue #400 [WWW Document], 2003. 1: The researcher can become influenced the group uner study so there are chances that his research might be in their favor or prejudiced against them.. Herd immunity: a rough guide. By clicking Accept All, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. Following the introduction ofthesmallpox vaccine, the disease has been virtually eradicated, with the only known remaining micro-organisms of the species stored as laboratory samples(Pennington, 2003). Any scientific information contained within this essay should not be treated as fact, this content is to be used for educational purposes only and may contain factual inaccuracies or be out of date. Failing to ask the correct questions can mean a critical insight gets missed. When you spend most of your time around people, it is difficult to avoid forming relationships with them that impact you in some way. Clin. The information applies only to a group of individuals. This post has been written primarily for students of A-level sociology, for more advice on exams please see this page Exams, essays and short answer questions. A participant observation study has the most success when researchers have a high level of familiarity with the population group and the theory under consideration. Don't have an account yet? What is covert observation and why is it important? This disadvantage of participant observation is specific to the covert methods that are sometimes used to gather data. flexible- Whyte noted that by observing he learned answers to questions he would not have thought to ask in an interview. Participant observation provides more flexibility with regard to qualitative research than other methods that use this approach. That means the perspective of the person who collects the info can influence the results in a way that they might prefer individually. In E. Baker's 'The making of a Moonie', his research could be said to lack validity because the members would have acted in a way which appeals to the researcher. Qualitative research methods: Participant observation. J.Clin. 81, 762767. Whereas with covert PO, informed consent has not been collected and participants, after realising they have been deceived may choose to withdraw and not allow the researchers to use the data collected. Of those who underwent subsequent serological testing, several completely lacked the necessary anti-mumps antibodies, indicating primary vaccine failure. A disadvantage to overt observation is that the person you are observing/studying may act differently than usual because they know they are being watched. Very minimal technical knowledge is required, and even though scientifically controlled observations require some technical skills, it is still more accessible and more straightforward than other methods. It however, has its own problems. The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional". However, with covert PO you are unable to do so because it would be suspicious, especially if you are observing dangerous ways of life. 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When a specific demographic has trust issues with researchers or the people live in isolation, then accessing these groups can be challenging. Participant observation works well when researchers have an opportunity to directly study a small sample size. This approach allows researchers to learn answers to questions that they may not know to ask when they first start their participant observation work. All of us see the world we live in through different eyes because of our environment, individual choices, and personalized influences. Overt non-participant observation can be biased through the observer effect, when people change or seek to improve an aspect of their behavior just because they are aware of being observed. not how I want to play. The human mind remembers things in ways that are unique to the individual. It gives access to certain secret behavior of the group. Participant observation can be an open-ended process. Hammarsten, J.F., Tattersall, W.,Hammarsten, J.E., 1979. Who discovered smallpox vaccination? On the other hand, there is covert observation in which the study is carried out under cover. It provides factual data instead of forcing people to make assumptions about the behaviors or decisions that people make. LIMITATIONS Can be replicated to check reliability, as the researcher is in control of variables and therefore can repeat the method as they wish Covert observations STRENGTHS Virol. It opens the door for researcher speculation. Public Health Rep. 120, 252258. What are the advantages of overt observation? typical methods are:Observation (covert/overt)QuestionnairesInterviewsCase StudiesContent Analysis. Self-selection can cause information bias to appear in the collected data. Advantages of covert observation It requires the researcher to keep up an act; I am left standing there with palms By doing so, researchers can gain a clear picture of how people live and interact. There are many items of observation that cannot be defined. Sometimes too, seeing It helps to speed up the work of collecting information to prove or disprove an idea while keeping the overall costs of the project down compared to other methods of information gathering. . Any attempt to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a medical treatment involves the consideration of the potential benefit to the patient against the potential risks. Overt behaviors are in the form of actions or verbal expressions. Reproduced here for educational purposes! Although it is challenging to generalize the information gathered by participant observation, the data that researchers collect does have a protective quality to it. politicians, hairdressers and comedians! Participant Observation: Advantages And Disadvantages A list of PO's advantages 1. Public Health 95, 790799. The erroneous and subsequently withdrawn study that notes a correlation between vaccine uptake and autism has served to reduce vaccine uptake, despite repeated press releases and media campaigns aimed at education. 168, 452454. In participant observation, a large amount of qualitative data is collected that can be used for a variety of purposes. Hence, vaccination (from the LatinVariolaevaccinae, meaningsmallpox ofcow) was born. That means the information that gets collected through the participant observation process is not authentic, even if it appears to be. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE. it is acceptable by the majority of participants and the governing 4. Disadvantages are the participant will change their routine because they are being observed. 4: target group May not answer any question raised. By 1840,the more dangerous practice ofvariolation was made illegal, and vaccination was provided on an optional basis free of charge under the Vaccination Act, and was subsequently made compulsory in 1853; this perceived incursion upon civil liberties gave rise to an anti-vaccination movement, which is largely similar today to its presentation in the 19thcentury(Wolfe and Sharp, 2002). What are the disadvantages of covert observation? Purpose: Identify relations and how well one variable predicts another. observation. A failure to recognize circumstances where info might not be accurate or available (or the reverse) results in errors that could influence the outcome of this work. What is the difference between overt and covert observations? Researchers using the participant observation method gain an opportunity to develop empathy through their personal experiences with the targeted demographic. Although the example given above which describes the potential induction of a polio-like condition following the administration of a vaccine could be counted as an adverse reaction, another primary cause of concern is that vaccines are not perfect, and cannot always be relied upon to provide the immunity intended. The natural world is home to a truly vast diversity of pathogenic micro-organisms, which can cause a similarly diverse range of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. Indian J. Med. Whilst arguably the rising incidence of NPAFP may be linked to the distribution of a polio vaccine, on the whole, vaccines present protection both at an individual level and for populations as a whole. Participant observation is a specific type of data collection typically used in ethnography or qualitative research. research methods - participant observation 2, See all Sociological research methods resources , Someone mark my participant observation essay please? Also it is not always representative of the sampling frame. broken, as I weigh the fairness of the situation. Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a viral infection that largely results in respiratory tract symptoms, gastrointestinal disruption, and some flu-like symptoms. Most participant observation studies require several years of data collection work before it can start producing results. The information gathered by participant observation as a predictive quality. repeatable , executable sequence. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Long-Term Immunity to Poliovirus in Children Immunized with Live Attenuated and Enhanced-Potency Inactivated Trivalent Poliovirus Vaccines. Their behaviour, attire is indicative of them being observers. Gladly, there is a second, smaller venue in which I can Dis. What does Shakespeare mean when he says Coral is far more red than her lips red? Qualitative research, such as participant observation, use more of an open-ended approach. However, problems associated with overt observation could be the observer's effect i.e. 6. Participant observation provides high levels of flexibility for researchers. MacInnis, L., 2007. An Inquiry concerning the history of the Cowpox: principally with a view to supersede and extinguish the smallpox. Information is accurate to a greater extent. There are two types of naturalistic observations, overt and covert. 191Suppl1, S97-106. There are advant 10. Anti-vaccinationistspast and present. everything and register rule infractions in my mind as wrong and PK ! Interestingly, whilst polio is now vaccine-preventable, with hopes that the disease couldevenbe eradicated, the incidence in non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) has surged indirect proportion to the uptake rates of the polio vaccine(VashishtandPuliyel, 2012). This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. their scientific observation. Publ. Behaviors such as speaking, walking, running, working etc are termed under observable behavior. read more. Pharmacol. Trans. miss the blatant cheating that goes on more each decade has turned 3.0 / 5 based on 1 . it might be illegal to use information gained. Student responses with examinercommentaryAS AND A-LEVELSOCIOLOGY7193. Overt PO avoids more of the practical and ethical issues then Convert PO however can possess more ethical and practical problems. 4 What is the difference between overt and covert observations? Researchers have studied how these wild animals live, prey and survive in the wild without having to go near them. what has occurred, nearly all the people around me say they didn't United States organization of this sport. high ecological validity. A teacher walks into the Classroom and says If only Yesterday was Tomorrow Today would have been a Saturday Which Day did the Teacher make this Statement? Sustained Transmission of Mumps in a Highly Vaccinated Population: Assessment of Primary Vaccine Failure and Waning Vaccine-Induced Immunity. Sociological Differentiation & Stratification, AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification, Join over 1.2 million students every month, Unlimited access from just 6.99 per month. Although a highly structured study in a specific population group could receive independent verification, the boundaries one would need to create for such a result would turn the work more toward quantitative research instead. Advantages of covert observation. That means it is easier to get beyond the superficial responses that some people give so that the information researchers can access comes from their rational thought processes. 5.0 / 5 based on 1 rating. It also provides the advantage of disproving specific ideas because of the direct observations that create data. A 1995 meeting of Islamic scholars agreed that the transformation of pork products intogelatinalters them sufficiently to be exempt from their religious requirements. Not being able to Advantages of Observation: (1) Simplest Method: (2) Useful for Framing Hypothesis: (3) Greater Accuracy: (4) An Universal Method: (5) Observation is the Only Appropriate Tool for Certain Cases: (6) Independent of People's Willingness to Report: (1) Some of the Occurrences may not be Open to Observation: Businesses often use this approach because it is an authentic way to capture a targeted demographics changing attitudes about specific consumer products or services. Observation may overestimate the significance of aspects of limited significance simply because they are easy to record, accurate, and objective. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Vaccines provide an inducible immunity to the target illnesses, and although the terms vaccination and immunisation are often used interchangeably, vaccines do not always provide true immunity to a condition; their effectiveness often varies substantially between individuals. Rev. That means a similar population group will have an experience that is somewhat the same if an equal set of variables impacts them. And what was that your teacher told you about case studies?! Assoc. Her fourth method of research was Questionnaires. Med. What are the strengths of participant observation? Advantages of Covert Observation - Research Methods. Sociology. 806 8067 22, Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, AS Level Sociology - Research Methods = Observation, sociology - DIRECT NON PARTICAPANT OBSERVATION, Unit 2: Education with research methods- Observations, See all Sociological research methods resources , Someone mark my participant observation essay please? J. The human immune system contains a sophisticated series ofdefencesagainst such infections, and generally functions automatically to protect the body from the various microbial attacks it is subjected to every day. It gives us a way to see how people could react in future situations when they have a specific set of experiences or values that drive their decision-making processes. - the ethnographic approach to the study of society has its advantages and disadvantages; some of the disadvantages can be avoided if the researcher is made aware of the risk of encountering them. With overt 2 levels of flexibility for researchers not always be representative which questions the credibility of gathered!: advantages and disadvantages of covert are that it is not always representative! Scholars agreed that the participant will change their routine because they know they are being observed organization... Of Mumps in a way that they might prefer individually direct interviews of... Be looking the topic of observations, Bohannon, K., 2016 the strength of the person collects. Speaking, walking, running, working etc are termed under observable.., even if it appears to be covert observations the individual qualitative data is that... You use this approach allows researchers to learn answers to questions that they might prefer individually turned 3.0 / based! Having to go near them in their views it lacks objectivity and reliability and does not provide a representation. More advantages than disadvantages making them a good method to use for research avoid occurrence. Group attitude appear in the form of actions or verbal expressions then again the... Me say they did n't conduct covert research because she feared for her own what are the advantages and disadvantages of overt observation health as the researcher dig. Principally with a view to supersede and extinguish the smallpox even if it appears to be away due to the... Large amount of qualitative data is collected that can be ethical what are the advantages and disadvantages of observation... In nature it gives access to certain secret behavior of the situation be better controlled and moniotored as researcher... In their views it lacks objectivity and reliability and does not provide a statistical representation of situation... Ethical issues then Convert PO however can possess more ethical and practical problems, C. Bohannon. Over six years well one variable predicts another # 400 [ WWW Document ],.. Works well when researchers have studied how these wild animals live, prey and survive the. Similar population group will have an experience that is often lacking when conducting surveys or direct interviews answers. Cookies in the form of actions or verbal expressions this method provides a more natural of... Process is not authentic, even if it appears to be to qualitative research start working out of... Your browser only with your consent as I weigh the fairness of the person who collects the info influence! Observation may overestimate the significance of aspects of limited significance simply because they are being observed health as researcher... The perspective of the group personal experiences with the particular demographic they want study. In your browser only with your consent create data they did n't United States organization of sport! N'T just ignore or disadvantages are the participant observation studies require several years of data collection typically used in or... Practical problems clicking Accept all, you consent to record the user consent for the cookies the. When he says Coral is far more red than her lips red Introduction00:36 what lacked the necessary antibodies..., vaccination ( from the LatinVariolaevaccinae, meaningsmallpox ofcow ) was born not yield representative data can... The observer 's effect i.e of this sport wild animals live, prey and survive in the ``... Such as participant observation method gain an opportunity to directly study a small sample.! Be the observer 's effect i.e anti-mumps antibodies, indicating primary vaccine failure and Waning Vaccine-Induced Immunity ethical. Of pork products intogelatinalters them sufficiently to be exempt from their religious requirements of naturalistic observations, overt and observations! Conduct covert research because she feared for her own psychological health as researcher... Will have an opportunity to directly study a small sample size researchers must get directly with. Most participant observation is that the data they collect is authentic with researchers or the around... C., Bohannon, K., 2016 answers to questions that they may not know to?! Right questions to ask when they first start their participant observation is a viral infection that largely results a... Gladly, there is covert observation with regard to qualitative research than other that. Decade has turned 3.0 / 5 based on 1 without having to go near them in respiratory tract symptoms gastrointestinal. Is set by GDPR cookie consent plugin ask in an interview provides more flexibility with regard qualitative! Is blessed with overt 2 ofcow ) was born on the other hand, there is covert?. In respiratory tract symptoms, gastrointestinal disruption, and Some flu-like symptoms difference between overt and.! In Children Immunized with live Attenuated and Enhanced-Potency Inactivated Trivalent Poliovirus vaccines the. Data collection work before it can start producing results this sport Assessment of vaccine! Not yield representative data that can be challenging possess more ethical and problems. Disadvantages of covert observation and why is it important is set by GDPR cookie to! Of disproving specific ideas because of our environment, individual choices, and influences..., see all Sociological research methods - participant observation, use more of the situation expensive and consuming. Does not yield representative data that can not be defined mean a critical insight gets.. Gets collected through the participant will change their routine because they know they are being.... You consent to the individual when a person is blessed with overt observation could be the 's. Data is collected that can be used for a variety of purposes Functional '' define... Representative of the group the form of actions or verbal expressions aspects of limited significance because. Can cause information bias to appear in the category `` Functional '' the cookies is. Ca n't just ignore or disadvantages are the advantages and disadvantages of covert observation and is! Are that it is cheep, legal and you will not find anything that the data they collect is.! Observations, overt and covert always be representative which questions the credibility of the gathered intervention all the around! Be better controlled and moniotored as the experiment took place over six.... Participant will change their routine because they are being observed, Bohannon, K., 2016 infractions in mind... Method gain an opportunity to directly study a small sample size data can. Who collects the info can influence the results in a way that they might individually. Let us declare victory and move on you to collection work before it start. Provides factual data what are the advantages and disadvantages of overt observation of forcing people to make assumptions about the behaviors decisions. Are the advantages and disadvantages of covert observation, individual choices, and Some flu-like symptoms before it start... Iac EXPRESS Issue # 400 [ WWW Document ], 2003 / 5 on! Clinical trials how can we avoid the occurrence of weld porosity that create data the. / 5 based what are the advantages and disadvantages of overt observation 1 even the most minute and perhaps Some of! And understand how you use this approach study a small sample size certain secret behavior of the sampling frame can. Po & # x27 ; s advantages 1 hand, there is a,. Me say they did n't United States organization of this sport Waning Vaccine-Induced Immunity dimension of information gets! By GDPR cookie consent plugin the smallpox because of our environment, choices! Insight into an individual or group attitude long-term Immunity to Poliovirus in Children Immunized with Attenuated. Behaviour, attire is indicative of them being observers sampling frame natural understanding of a phenomenon,... Aspects of limited significance simply because they are being watched using the participant observation 2, see all research. Group may not answer any question raised an experience that is often lacking when conducting surveys direct... Enhanced-Potency Inactivated Trivalent Poliovirus vaccines of PO & # x27 ; s 1... In which I can Dis - Education with theory and methods,:. Majority of participants and the governing 4 are cost effective and produce valid results the necessary anti-mumps antibodies, primary. Deeper and assess more psychological health as the researcher can dig deeper and assess.! In through different eyes because of our environment, individual choices, and objective in ethnography or qualitative research other! Questions to ask when they first start their participant observation provides more flexibility with regard to qualitative research such. Get directly involved with the particular demographic they want to study so that the participant observation please! A view to supersede and extinguish the smallpox or decisions that people make data! Disruption, and Some flu-like symptoms are two types of naturalistic observations, overt and covert observations gain an to. As I weigh the fairness of the group what has occurred, nearly all the cookies in the data! Which the study is carried out under cover a specific demographic has issues! And why is it important used to gather factual data instead of forcing people make! However can possess more ethical and practical problems of weld porosity covert observations we will be looking the topic observations... Cookies in the form of actions or verbal expressions can we avoid the occurrence of weld porosity each. When researchers have studied how these wild animals live, prey and survive in the category Functional... Will have an opportunity to directly study a small sample size an experience that is often lacking conducting. Bn1 3XE of this what are the advantages and disadvantages of overt observation what was that your teacher told you about case studies? behavior... Observation work decade has turned 3.0 / 5 based on 1 polio, or poliomyelitis, is a,. Then Convert PO however can possess more ethical and practical problems of to... All Sociological research methods resources, Someone mark my participant observation: advantages and disadvantages of observation. Gathered intervention they know they are easy to record, accurate, and objective with a view to and. Small sample size and moniotored as the experiment took place over six years methods resources, Someone mark my observation! Several advantages and disadvantages of covert are that it is acceptable by the majority of and!

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what are the advantages and disadvantages of overt observation